Competing Definitions of Product/Market Fit

One of my favorite questions to ask seed/early stage entrepreneurs is “do you have product/market fit?” Then, naturally, it’s followed up by “how do you know and what are the metrics?” Of course, the answers, and rationale, are all over the place. While there are a variety of ways to define product/market fit, here are the three most common:

  1. By Unaffiliated Customers
    A simple, easily quantifiable definition is product/market fit is achieved when you have 10 unaffiliated customers that are passionate about the product. Unaffiliated, in this definition, is key in that the customers need to have bought the product based on its merit, not based on being a friend of the founder or an old colleague. Passionate customers are another important component in that there has to be a positive indicator beyond just paying money that there is a real need, one with authentic demand, being solved.
  2. By Positive Momentum
    A looser definition of product/market fit is when instead of feeling like everything is an up hill slog in the startup, things get easier and there’s palpable momentum. Examples include customers signing with significantly shorter sales cycles, PR opportunities popping up, and potential employees actively reaching out to join.
  3. By Distribution Scalability
    A later stage definition of product/market fit is when the cost of customer acquisition is favorable relative to the lifetime value of the customer. Here, the idea is that the solution is valuable and customers are being acquired in way that makes the startup indefinitely scalable.

While there are a number of competing definitions, it’s clear that product/market fit represents good things happening in the startup and the foundation for a successful company.

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